By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical info said during this Chuj-English dictionary have been amassed in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language used to be in 1962, whilst I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to collect info on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate scholar at the
University of Texas, hired as a examine assistant at the collage of Chicago's Chiapas
Study tasks, directed by means of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and in other places in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, often within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from numerous languages. The pattern incorporated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who was once later to turn into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the venture wound down, I back to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate reports in
Anthropology on the collage of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas venture fabrics in McQuown's data, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the following educational 12 months I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accumulated and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safeguard schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. by way of the end
of August I had shrunk an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we begun paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days every week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco may cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We started via reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my blunders of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. whilst Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey checklist (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering uncomplicated vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed via Kaufman for the Chicago tasks, took benefit of the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the record of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in keeping with every one. One benefit of this method is that it elicits
vocabulary that may in a different way no longer ensue to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic types in addition to infrequently heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to list narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated via me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i might cross over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. the entire lexical fabric accrued via those suggestions was once wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to gather crops within the Cuchumatanes, together with in particular the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been large cloud wooded area. We accumulated for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis gathered the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so forth. and comments at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the vegetation and their ethnobotanical type (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). based on my box notes we gathered 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those facts went into my lexical slip documents, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that booklet are integrated during this dictionary.
In could of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the realm in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj was once spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town middle, a complete of 27 questionnaires. numerous texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric used to be incorporated
into my lexical documents. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i amassed extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The choice of plant names encouraged me to assemble animal names to boot, and to take
notes on their local type. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box publications to the birds. a number of the names have been accumulated during the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the technique of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj process of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went in the course of the lexical documents and further the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had obtained the topographical maps for the zone of
Huehuetenango (Dirección normal de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position via position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish models (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost necessarily transcribed Ix-). i eventually dropped at the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that used to be worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names was once later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all of the position names
were further to my lexical records. The Spanish position names said listed below are the reliable names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección common de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate pupil in Geology from LSU was once residing in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out a number of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his examine and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by means of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about additional tasks. With Francisco's aid, they accrued close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj region, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a couple of comparative learn of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following couple of years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to assemble and examine the
vocabularies, Brent to jot down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to research the grammars. simply the grammatical research reached booklet (Hopkins 1970).
However, the entire details I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a task educating Anthropology on the collage of Texas
in Austin, and persevered to procedure my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she were educating, after which lower back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in prefer of box education and examine on languages toward Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had started to stick to the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, whilst I got a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the US (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box photographs, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in glossy functional orthography, will whole this
The assortment contains the entire recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which now not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements said the following as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil battle (Manz 1988:83-89). it really is my purpose so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric besides, together with large notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely to be had to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary could be further to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched considering that approximately 1970. Over the following few months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now authentic Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include all of the facts on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Extra info for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Ek' tzantzananok, vin phrase. To hop along on one foot. = p'at tzannajok. Cf. tzan, num cl, steps hopping on one foot. Ex: tz'ek' tzantzananok, He went hopping. 'ek' tz'itz'onok, vin phrase. To jump from side to side like a frisky cat. Ex: tz'ek' tz'itz'onok, He jumps from side to sidde. 'ek' chotchonok, vin phrase. To walk without using the legs, as a cripple with paralyzed legs. Cf. chotchon 'ek'ih. Ex: 'ix 'ek' chotchonok, He walked without using his legs. 'ek' ch'ekch'onok, vin phrase. To ride mounted on a horse.
In address, wunin. Reciprocal, mamin. Ex: 'unin hap'il, he's a son (of a household). 'unin, n (nok'; 'ajtzo'. 'ix). Salamander. 'unin witz, n (lum). Place name: A mountain east of the Nentón aldea yalanh p'ojoch, south of the trail to San Francisco. 'untuh, n. Chicken fat; schmaltz. " Ex: yuntuh, his chicken fat. yuntuhal kaxlanh, the chicken fat of the chicken. 'unyonh, n (lum). Place name: Unión, Nentón. Abandoned or destroyed in the civil war (Manz 1988:89). 'up', n (nok'; 'ajtzo', chichim).
Someone has been molesting in fun and she is now tired of it. Cf. 'ah, the equivalent in men's speech. 'oj, onom. The sound of a cough. 'ojop', n. The material coughed up that comes out in the mouth. Ex: yojop', his sputum; yojop'al, the material coughed up because of something; yojop'al yajolom, the material coughed up from a cold. 30 'ok, n. Foot (body part). Ex: yok, his foot. *yokil, *yokal. 'oklem, n. Footprint or animal track, either a single print or a trail. Ex: yoklem, his print; yoklemal, the prints of something, its track.
A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE by Nicholas A. Hopkins
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