By Zaira Khalilova.

ISBN-10: 9078328932

ISBN-13: 9789078328933

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Extra resources for A grammar of Khwarshi

Example text

Na]^a ‘open’; 17 /g^/ g^ana ‘to pull’, g^andu ‘pit’; /k^/ k^ab^a ‘black’; /k’^/ kd^akd^a ‘leg’; /p^/ p^aSa ‘smear’; /p’^/ pd^awSa ‘mew’, S’op’^o ‘liquid manure’, p’^ap’^ani ‘chatter’; /b^/ b^ul_a ‘bald patch’, b^aye[ ‘throat’; /m^/ a[m^ ‘coil’, m^g]ul ‘outside’, m^ane ‘nose, cliff’, m^aSu ‘mouth’; /h^/ h^opd^oli ‘a plump baby’, ^a[ha ‘ear’, ^aha ‘kill’2. g. the Present participle auxiliary can occur as the non-pharyngealized form gollu and the pharyngealized form g^ol_l_u3; note that in the last example the pharyngealization triggers palatalization.

Once upon a time there were beautiful girls’. 7. ABS girl(II) mada-]ul. 1. Gender assignment Assignment may depend on two basic types of information about the noun: its meaning (semantics) and its form. Information about the form may be of two kinds – word structure comprising derivation and inflection (morphology) and sound structure (phonology) (Corbett 1991: 7). Khwarshi like many other Daghestanian languages uses the semantic factor to a greater degree than morphological and phonological factors.

QUES’ (cf. 13). g. ’ (cf. 2). g. meeSa ‘to moo’, ^e[^e[Sa ‘to bray’. g. mada-]ul ‘outside-VERS’ m^g-]ul5 ‘outside-VERS’ žoho ‘behind’ žeb-]ul ‘behind-VERS’6 žohoq’^emul ‘backwards’ žeq’^ul Long vowels can also be nasalized except for /i/ and /I/. 3. 1. Assimilation In Khwarshi consonant assimilation occurs at the boundary of two morphemes. The most common assimilation is when the inflectional suffix assimilates to the preceding consonant. Assimilation is found when the Present tense suffix -še is added after the final consonant of the verbal stem.

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