By Tolemariam Fufa
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Additional info for A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic Languages
He also notes that causative verbs may have reciprocal, intensive, iterative and distributive meanings although such meanings are less motivated since they are not associated with the core function of the causative (Kulikov 2001: 894); I do not discuss such cases since they are not observed in Oromo (Meč’a dialect). In Oromo only direct, indirect, assistive and similative7 causations are relevant for the grammatical system of the language. Direct and indirect causations are known by different terms such as contact vs.
All structures have only one agentive subject. Despite the presence of the causative marking –is- no additional subject is introduced. There are also similar verbs such as daadd-is- ‘to start walking (for a child)’. This intransitive causative is derived from a nominal form daaddee ‘walking of a child’. Verbs such as t’all-is- ‘to struggle to survive’ and k’at’t’is- ‘to walk cautiously and slowly’ are intransitive causatives which are derived from ideophones. The fact that –is- could be dropped when the corresponding stems are used with the verb jeɗ ‘to say’ to express the same concept shows that –is- is not part of the verb root.
Lloret (1987:146) 21. S-reduction rule […s]stem + [s…]affix→[…s…] Verbs such as ajjees- ‘kill’ and leejjis- ‘break in a horse’ are cited to justify the Sreduction rule. As Lloret notes, when the causative morpheme –s- is added at the first cycle to the word ajjees-, the /s/ phoneme of the stem is reduced; and at the second cycle the causative morpheme –i(i)s- is added to derive the causative ajjeesis- ‘make kill’. Lloret argues that the verb leejjisis- ‘make break in horse’ is derived in the same way.
A Typology of Verbal Derivation in Ethiopian Afro-Asiatic Languages by Tolemariam Fufa
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