By G.J. Heij,J.W. Erisman

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Additional resources for Acid Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Netherlands. The Third and Final Phase (1991-1995)

Sample text

Only when this occurs completely is the actual acidification 25 equal to the potential acidification (see Chapter 3). 2 R e s e a r c h p e r f o r m e d in the c o n t e x t of D P P A - I I I After DPPA-II, the most important uncertainty in determining the deposition of potential acid to forests and heathland in The Netherlands was that in the dry deposition. Because of the need to generalize, there were also too few long-term concentration measurements available for components such as ammonia, acids and particles.

The increased deposition resulting from the greater turbulence at roughness t r a n s i t i o n s has not been taken into account yet. It can lead to greater deposition at local scale, for example at forest edges. A relatively high proportion of the afforested area can be considered as forest edge because of the many small forests in The Netherlands. Finally, local sources (farms, roads) near forests or other nature conservation areas were not included. 48 Mean deposition to deciduous forest, coniferous forest, average mixed forest, heathland and other nature areas in The Netherlands in 1993, for various components.

I , , , , 1984 1420 280 1700 530 350 880 1710 6601 2370 2240 1010 3250 5080 1570 6650 . 95280 . 1600 . 1985 1540 270 1810 500 350 850 1700 710 2410 '2200I 1060 . i 4200 1680 5880 , 1988 u i 1989 n n | n n n | | n J ,~ J 740 220 960 440 390 740 1610 620 2230 2050, 920 . . . '11170 ' 4400 ~ 'i n 550 220 770 420 250 750 1300 670 1970 1720 1000 2720 2820 1440 4260 i , 1993'570 _ 2000 , u , . , . , | u , n , , 135 400 450 210 660 615 265 | 220 . , . o . 190 760 420 330 740 1320 680 2000 1740 1000 2740 2900 1380 4280 265 n 2010 n ,,J 2970 3220 1410 4630 ' .

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Acid Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Netherlands. The Third and Final Phase (1991-1995) by G.J. Heij,J.W. Erisman

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