By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

16 reference constructions were outlined by means of the U.S. division of strength, and created as EnergyPlus enter records, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and aiding the improvement of strength codes in pursuing construction power potency advancements. Infiltration premiums within the EnergyPlus types of the reference structures have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in keeping with validated development airflow concept. on the way to help extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, types of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant delivery software CONTAM. a few extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM types, and adjustments within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the structures. whereas the assumed infiltration premiums in EnergyPlus don't realistically mirror affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the outside air switch premiums calculated via CONTAM and climate. additionally, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both process are obvious to have a huge effect at the air switch premiums. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, unstable natural compounds from indoor resources, outside particulate topic, and open air ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects supply an invaluable baseline for next use of those types to enquire ways to construction air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to concurrently lessen construction power intake whereas conserving or bettering indoor air caliber.

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Extra resources for Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings

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All of these differences point out the importance of accurate modeling of building airflow in building energy simulation. 28 5. CONTAMINANT SIMULATION RESULTS This section presents the contaminant simulation results for system-on hours only, during which the majority of the occupants are present. The distribution of daily average concentrations of all contaminants, distribution of daily peak CO2 concentrations, and distribution of daily peak volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentrations are plotted in Figure 20 to Figure 37 for the selected zones listed in Table 7 for each of the six buildings.

However, for the Hospital, outdoor air change rates calculated using CONTAM are not significantly affected by temperature difference as seen in Figure 9a. The Hospital HVAC system is scheduled to always be on, and the mechanical airflows dominate the envelope infiltration rates. Plots (a) of Figure 14 to Figure 19 show that generally there is a non-linear relationship between system-on outdoor air change rates calculated using CONTAM and Ws. Exceptions to these trends are discussed below. For the Medium Office, the system-on air outdoor change rates calculated using CONTAM are generally constant between ΔT=0 oC and ΔT=20 oC and linearly related to ΔT outside this range (Figure 10a).

The infiltration cooling loads calculated using CONTAM were about three to 10 times higher than the EnergyPlus (tight) results. 4 GJ. ) results. ) results. ) results. ) results. For all of the buildings, except the Hospital, the differences in calculated infiltration sensible load between the CONTAM and EnergyPlus (tight) models were 10 % to 60 % of the total energy consumption. For the Hospital, the differences in calculated infiltration sensible load were only 1 % to 5 % of the total energy consumption because the energy consumption for the Hospital is the highest among the six simulated buildings.

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Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings by Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

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