By Takatoh Kohki

ISBN-10: 0203970403

ISBN-13: 9780203970409

ISBN-10: 0748409025

ISBN-13: 9780748409020

ISBN-10: 1420023012

ISBN-13: 9781420023015

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Extra info for Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices

Sample text

From these facts, the surface reorientation of the polymers rubbed by cloth might be the dominant mechanism of LC alignment by the rubbed polymer. However, alignment strength dependency of the rubbing cloth and groove structural differences caused by the cloths have been reported. Therefore, the surface grooves caused by rubbing probably play an important role in the alignment of the LC. It is still not clear why the surface reorientation of the polymer occurs. Pidduck et al. have estimated a local temperature increase of up to 180  C.

Their movement also makes scratches on the alignment layer. The number of these defects is influenced by the pressure during assembly. At high pressures, the defects around the spacers increase, and at a low pressures, the defects caused by scratches increase. To eliminate light leakage from the spacer beads, a technique using small pillars made of photoresist to control the cell gap has been developed [53]. Fig. 34 Photomicrograph of the spacers in a TN-LCD (5 V applied). Top view Rubbing direction of top substrate Molecules Rubbing direction of bottom substrate Glass Spaces Molecules Side view Observation by polarizing microscope Polarizer Polarizer, analyzer Light reflection from disclination line around spacer Analyzer Light reflection from disclination line around spacer V=0 V=V Fig.

Increasing the number of rubbings increases Af, the ratio of the area affected by rubbing, but it 30 Masaki Hasegawa becomes saturated when all of the area has been affected by rubbing. In contrast to this, increasing the rubbing pressure also increases Af, but it causes stronger interaction with the alignment layer for larger rubbing pressures and becomes saturated to Af. This can be confirmed by considering the relationship between the number of rubbings, the rubbing pressure, and the anchoring energy.

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