By Thomas Bernauer, Dieter Ruloff
An exam of the effectiveness of fabric incentives in negotiating fingers agreements. It asks even if it truly is good to shop for co-operation from severe states and explores a number of situations of nuclear non-proliferation international relations, together with reports with Ukraine and North Korea.
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Extra info for The politics of positive incentives in arms control
By contrast, positive incentives in the sense defined here have so far received little attention. This circumstance may stem from the fact that academics are not immune to political developments. , McMahon Act and the Atoms for Peace Program in the United States; similar measures by the newly founded International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]; incentives included in the NPT). But for various reasons (for example, the declining attractiveness of nuclear energy), negative incentives and denial strategies became more prominent in the second half of the 1970s with the founding of the Nuclear Exporters Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, as well as unilateral policies aimed at potential proliferators (see Goldblat 1994; Brito, Intriligator, and Wick 1983).
However, positive incentives can lead to other problems, particularly if rewarding violations of international agreements. Whether a transaction involving positive or negative incentives constitutes an exchange, an extortion or an explanation, is ultimately an empirical question. Analytical work on this issue is complicated by the fact that in most cases of contingent action information is incomplete. States are not fully informed about other states' preferences. Even more difficult, governments are often not even entirely sure, or are divided over, what their own preferences are.
The same holds true for past experiences with nuclear weapons. Japan's nonnuclear status can be explained quite well in these terms. This status is partly due to the outcome of World War II, when the United States imposed a new constitution on Japan. In this constitution Japan had to forswear the nuclear-weapons option (Inoguchi 1995). S. hegemony over the country has waned can be explained by several factors other than simply power relationships. Having been a victim of nuclear attack, Japan has a public aversion to nuclear weapons that still runs deep.
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